An Optimal Way to Ride in Groups

A Case Study | UCSD course: Cogs127 Design Human-Data Interaction 

Introduction

In this Design Human-Data Interactions course, I worked in a team of three on generating new ideas to improve existing Uber mobile application. We were inspired by our common experience on real-world problems on the existing Uber app and hoped to extend the function for a solution. Our team came to an agreement on creating a function that can help Uber users, especially young adults, better organize rides with large group of people.

Our extension is named UberGroup. I was the generator of all UI components, creator of the functional flow (Flow 2), and the director of the user research interviews. I analyzed the research data and reflected on the user research and testing. My focus is to preserve the users' habits while providing them with a new and comfortable experience with UberGroup.

​项目介绍

​这是一份设计人与数据交互课程的上,我与另外两位组员完成的项目。我们起初期望能够提出提升现有Uber App的功能体验。受到平时我们共同体验到的App上的现实问题启发,我们决定为原软件扩展一个功能作为解决方案。在讨论过后,我们小队决定针对大群体打车,即打车人数超过一辆车的最大载客量的情况,的问题进行解决。特别是希望针对晚归的青少年,从安全和组织打车的便利性两方面入手拓展功能。

我们把这个拓展功能命名为“UberGroup“。我是项目中UI组件的绘制者、流程图2的绘制者以及用户研究面试的导演。我分析了研究数据并将其运用到下一次用户测试和研究当中。我的主要关注点在于保护原有App用户的使用 习惯,并在此基础上令UberGroup提供新的和舒适的用户体验。

"Uber riders have difficulty coordinating Ubers for large parties to arrive to the same destination which leads to frustration, anxiety and separation of group."

"Uber 使用者在组织一大群人使用Uber打车前往同一个地点时发现了困难,导致了沮丧、不安和群体的分离"

User Research

1

Prepare

Target Users

We focused on younger adults who use Uber to coordinate transportation for events as our target user, because this group have potentially similar thoughts as ours.

From our own experiences and casual observations, Uber does not satisfy user’s convenience in traveling with large parties. Our problem was indeed a prevalent issue and a majority stated they would like to see the changes we offered. Thus, with our redesign, I believe Uber will be a more user-friendly and user-centered application that can help riders meet their goals with Uber more comfortably, efficiently, and conveniently.

User Goals

Communicate

​交流

Communicate location quickly and effectively for a specific period of time

Plan

计划

Plan specific places to meet should some members become separated from the larger group

Organize

组织

Organize rides easily for more than 6 people and/or more than one car full of people

Research Goals

​Understand the problem

Prevalence?

Difficulties?

Driver VS Riders?

​理解问题

Find users' thoughts

Resolutions?

Alternatives?

Expectations?

​理解用户

What we do later?

Analyze the gap between these and optimize user experience

Research Methods
One-on-one interviews

2

​Interview

Our team conducted 11 one-on-one interviews with participants, who are 10 Uber users and 1 Uber driver. 10 young adults are interviewed to collect enough data about our target users, while one Uber driver provided us reference to the other side of the story on group riding problem. Interview is an intimate and personal method of gathering data by asking questions and observing users' behaviors. Our pool of interviewees is composed of college students, whose ages are around or slightly over 20. Since these issues are prevalent in our lives, we wanted to focus on individuals similar to ourselves and therefore mainly interviewed UCSD students or young adults in our age range.

User Interviews

Sean Staskus

UCSD, EE student, Junior, 20

"It’s tough when people do not communicate about where to meet or show up on time. Getting people to cooperate when they are intoxicated is hard."

Has a hard time organizing his group during an event. Feels like they either ignore him or due to issues with apps on their phone right now nothing exists to streamline this process.

Key Takeaways

Dat Nguyen

Project Engineer, San Francisco, 25

"Uber should have a feature where they ask exactly how many people there are."

Finds it hard to meet up with his group of friends when taking Ubers to a venue or large event. Uses Uber as main mode of transportation when attending these large events.

* Selected the most representative interviewees selected from our interviews to represent the majority:

Rachel Reyes

UCSD, HCI student, Senior, 21

"One person ordering there and back and Venmo both people, sometimes you have to order multiple, and two more people to order it. Sometime going back, hard to find a sober people to order on multiple phone, sometimes put the wrong location."

Has trouble splitting the Uber cost in both sober and intoxicated circumstances. It’s better if multiple Ubers can be ordered at once. Communication can be very difficult after drinks. Can be dangerous when intoxicated people are divided into different cars.

Driver(s) Interview

"I had intoxicated passengers before but the largest group is only 3 of them. I just drove them home and nothing happened. It was a normal ride except they were laughing and joking loudly."

Had no problem with either large group or intoxicated people. However better communication is needed between passengers and drivers, such as providing more information and making the map more accurate for picking up and dropping off.

Key Takeaway

3

Results

Major Findings

Our strongest findings gave us evidence that 6/10 passengers reported having difficulties Ubering with large parties when intoxicated. 11/11 participants showed support and endorsement for our suggested app extension. Multiple users expressed the desire in the ability to order multiple Ubers on one device.

Weaker Findings

Stronger evidence for difficulties in ordering Ubers for large parties was seen for intoxicated individuals, as only 4/10 participants reported having trouble in such circumstances when not under the influence, which was unexpected.

Inconclusive Findings

Due to our limited abilities in interviewing Uber drivers, it was inconclusive whether these problems persist among Uber drivers as prevailingly as they do among riders. It is also inconclusive that how our new UberGroup function will influence the drivers, who are also "users" for Uber company. Due to the inconsistency in how frequently our interviewees use Uber, we cannot foresee how the trend may differ for more frequent Uber users.

Research to Problem

Users find difficulty with ordering multiple Ubers in a single group

Users would rather have a way to order multiple Ubers from a single device

Most of our data collection fell inside our target user population

Positive feedbacks on our general ideas about UberGroup

Core Pain Points

Coordination between individuals at night is difficult:

When Ubering to large events and venues, either riders in their group were intoxicated or they were headed to an event with high noise levels, making it difficult to communicate in general.

Difficulty in Coordinating multiple cars to leave and arrive at one place:

Riders expressed inconvenience in having to split up groups for Ubers and in having to gather up after the ride. The inability to know where the other group’s Uber is headed, when they departed, and when they are estimated to arrive makes this process difficult.

Inconsistency in ways of ordering Ubers for large parties:

There are multiple ways to choose ride options and combinations for selecting the cars among many Uber ride types. Users need to calculate and consider the best way to order cars, usually on multiple phones.

Competitive Audit

Competitives

​Pros

Cons

Lyft

  • Widely User

  • Offers transportation for up to six passengers from one device

  • Can't really call multiple cars on a single device

  • Not as well known as Uber

  • Clunkier UI than Uber

  • Easy transport for big groups

  • Helps commuters through use of shuttles

  • Not designed for spontaneous request service

  • Currently only available in AUS

Bridj

Wingz

  • Easy book for future trips

  • Personalize-can choose specific drivers

  • Only used for rides to the airports

  • No feature for large groups

Via

  • Very customizable

  • Integrates many methods of transportation service

  • Not widely available

  • Not as well known and will impact fewer people than others

Design Iterations

1

Personas

Britney

Britney just started her new job as an elementary school teacher. She doesn’t go out at night with her friends too often but when she does, she finds it really hard to uber and meet up together. She isn’t tech-savvy so she depends on her friends to lead and guide her to their destination, but sometimes feels lost and worried when she has no idea where they are headed.

2

UX Flows

Steve

Steve is a young professional who works in technology. He loves going out to venues and bars with his other friends but finds that he is always the one organizing their transportation. He constantly worries about small details and wishes that he could be the sole person to coordinate how his group got around.

Elizabeth

Elizabeth is a CEO of a fashion & design company. She works in high-speed pace everyday and often travels around the world for business with her team. She wants to save some time from her busy life by being productive when traveling , especially for business trips, but never does because they don’t order a car large enough for the team. She constantly has to call everyone to talk even though they are all headed to the same venue.

We originally drafted two UX flows so that we could test two novel user experiences in the user testing and get feedbacks from different angels.

我们起初起草了两版用户体验流程图,具备复杂程度和具体功能上的差异。将制作对应的界面草图以供用户测试。

Flow 1( & 2)

Designed for personas Britney and Steve:

ride with a large groups usually for special occasions. 

Flow 2

Designed for persona Elizabeth: a group riding service by Uber for a certain period of time with designated large group of people. 

Customize

Home Page

​Timed group creation page

Where to?

Input Destination

Number of Passengers

Input Number of passengers

Uber provides optimal ride options

Create a group for a business trip

Set time limit

Enroll a timed group(eg. 3 days)

Uber assign cars

Cost split

​Uber calculates spending and order cars 

​Enroll the group

One pays all

Split equally

Split based on cars

Everyone in the group enter the code to on their own phones

Everyone in the group enter the code to on their own phones

More than 6

​Uber outputs a secret code for riding 

​Users enter their assigned cars

​Users check others location on App

End trip

​Enter a conversation and function page

Initiates a trip

​Sketches

Flow 1

Flow 2

3

Prototyping and testing

We made one paper prototype for each flow. Besides creating prototype for the user that decides to create the group, we create a simple prototype for users who are joining the group. The first prototype makes the individual ride the priority and allows users to select the UberGroup option from the scrolling menu, similar to how you would scroll up on Uber if you wanted to call and UberBlack or UberXL. The second prototype features on the group creation interface. Included within the group functionality is time restricted location sharing, an internal chat, and the ability to call Ubers from the chat menu. 

Paper Prototyping

Flow 1

Flow 2

User Testing

Our users liked the ability to add friends to create a group and pick the specific car allocation and the ability to share the group. They also liked the ability to see instantly when and where others in their group would arrive, especially at locations that are large and hard to find others in. Buttons and procedural flow need to be made more obvious to the user, such as buttons on sharing group code or the invite friends feature.

Flow 1

Flow 2

Easier for users to navigate as it was better integrated into the existing Uber user flow.

Offered better group navigation and a more centralized information flow. 

Preferred!

Use flow 1 to iterate according to the feedback in user testings

3

Prototyping and testing

Our high fidelity prototypes cooperated the users' and TA's feedback, which coordinate better with the Uber UX flow and design, and are more user oriented. We altered the features to allow for easier switching between cars and reducing the amount of excess information we displayed. We also altered buttons and layouts. In our ride customization page specifically, we altered the design so that it did not look so similar to the Uber ride selection page and would cause less confusion.

​功能入口

Original Uber functions

​UberGroup

​As currently in the Uber app, user see the home screen with a map and click the input box to select a destination to go before group riding selection

​在进入拓展功能之前,我们重制了Uber的初始界面和地点界面,用户将像他们习惯的一样,从初始界面点击输入框先选择目的地

We implanted the UberGroup as an additional car type in the original car selection list, in order to follow the users' habits while using this application.

​为了符合用户的使用习惯,我们把UberGroup功能作为一种新的车型选项放在原有的菜单底部。

​设计迭代

​Number of People

​To allow quick input of numbers, we switched out design from horizontal sliding for selection to keyboard input.

​为了提高输入效率,我们把原定的横向滑动从菜单中选择数字改为了数字键盘输入

​Max num 

By using an example of number “16”, we showed the maximum number of cars allowed in this function to users

​在展示数字输入示例的同时,我们也提示了用户此功能最大人数限制

Original design: Horizontal sliding menu

​原设计:横向滑动菜单

贴心的设计!

​设计迭代

​Two ways of sharing code

​Riders

​Share the secret code with friends face-to-face by showing them by phone or orally

面对面分享入群码

As riders join the trip, their first names are shown at the bottom so that the phone owner knows when to start a trip

​在分享入群码的过程中,发起人可以查看已加入的人员名单以便在合适的时候开始旅程

In cases that your friends are not here yet or are temporarily off, you can also save them spots by sharing the code to their phone by texting

​如果朋友还没在身边或者暂时离开,也可以通过短信的方式给他们分享,预留座位

Original design: only has the function of sharing via text messages

​原设计:仅有通过短信分享的选项

​设计迭代

​Optimal selection

Summary page

Instead of showing multiple options, we made the screen a best option as default and allow the riders to customize the car selection by clicking the button on top

​代替展示多种(最优惠、最舒适等等)选项,我们改为让客户默认进入系统计算的最合适方案,并可以点击上方自定义按钮进行编辑。

Original design: let the user select an option from "fastest", "cheapest", "most comfortable", and etc.

​原设计:让用户从“最快捷”,“最实惠”,“最舒适”等选项中选择

Gives users a chance to double-check the passengers before selecting the payment

​让用户在进入选择付款形式界面前再次有机会确认乘客姓名,确保无失误操作

贴心的设计!

Splitting cost

Inheriting from the US convention and original Uber cost split function, we design a function that allows the owner to split the bill prior to the trip, which would be easy to manage and plan

​我们设计了符合美国用户习惯和原有均摊账单的Uber功能的分账功能,便于发起人在旅途开始之前就管理和计划账单的支付

Pop-up window

To increase the efficiency of selection, and ensure that all the information of names and cars are saved and visible, we use a pop-up window for selecting the payment

​为了提高用户效率和保证原来的姓名和乘车情况保存并对用户可见,我们选择使用弹窗让用户进行付款方式的选择

Add and delete riders

By clicking on the name tags, the owner can manage the passengers by adding, deleting riders and switching cars

可以通过点击姓名标签,拖动更换车辆和删除乘车人,点击上方按钮添加乘车人

View your friend's info

​Additional info for your car

Additional car icons are added to the original trip map so that each rider can view the locations and ETAs by clicking on different cars

原有的旅途地图上从一辆车变为多辆车,每个乘车人都可以通过点击汽车图标来查看同行者的位置和预计到达时间

​As usual, you can see all the information of the car you are riding, such as the plate number, departure and destination location, and etc, while you can only see the location and ETAs for other cars

​对于自己乘坐的车辆可以像往常一样查看到比其他车辆更多的信息,比如车牌号码、出发和到达地点等等,并可以进行其他操作

Thoughts

Edge Cases

Our UberGroup function did not sufficiently consider users who want to be on the group rides for that particular time, but do not have an Uber app installed, or whose phone is out of battery. They will not be able to being added, splitting the costs, and seeing the location of the others. I cannot solve the very last problem because we cannot propose something like implanting a location sharing microchip to a person just for knowing other friends' Uber locations. However, for the other two, I propose that a temporary link as a potential solution. This is inspired by Uber's original function of sharing a trip via a link.

This temporary link is an add-on for the ride sharing function via text message. When the orderer chooses to share the code via the text message, there will be a plain text message with the code only, and a sharing link which connects to the Uber app. If people have a Uber app, the link will open the app for them; if they don't have Uber, this temporary link will be sent to them via text message and clickable even after the ride ends. People need to input the code from the text to the app or link to get onboard. This link serves the Uber app's function for people who do have an Uber app but have a phone with them.

 

Originally, the riders need to input the code or click on the text message to go the Uber app page so that they are confirmed to be on board. Now if the link is not clicked by the time that the orderer want to start the ride, there will be a secondary option-allow this person to be a "temporary free rider". What this means is that this person will still have a seat on the ride, but they can confirm that they were on the ride later and pay for the splitting costs afterwards. The confirmation process will still be entering the sharing code. This "temporary free rider" can enter his payment method, or use the link to go into Uber app and pay with existing payment methods. This link then helps to solve the problem that people do not have an access to their phone but want to be on the ride.

Reflection

In our case study, we purposefully included both flow in each step before the high-fidelity prototype. We narrowed our redesign down to the first prototype driven by testing data. I am glad that we used the limited data to reflect human-centered experience on entry point, user conventions, visual design and layouts, and interactions. I think more minor issues will be reflected if we can interview more people and analyze the user testing data in a more quantitative way. This extended UberGroup feature will be potentially better than the original app, because it can extend the user group for Uber by helping users to reduce the workloads for ordering Ubers for a large group of people. 

 

We did note exclude our second prototype until the final prototype, because I believe a more functional version is maybe anti-conventional but worth exploring, although current data do not support it. Good designers and developers do not just follow the convention but lead users to new and better conventions. I am willing to challenge conventions and create better features for users in my future projects.

Improvements for our study can be made by considering the edge cases in advance and access more data from both various Uber riders and drivers. It is possible that we found our this function is not helpful for many users after enough number of testings. This can be due to the abundance of alternative group ride apps in the future or people do not think the existing problem is a significant issue. 

 

For future projects, It is valuable to apply the problem solving skills and user-centered redesign I learned from this case study. This experience is very helpful for me to explore more on existing application about their conventions and potential improvement through extending or redesigning the current functions. The short term case study with a team inspired me to work in more team projects creatively and coordinately. 

End

 © 2020 by Jing Lang. 

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